This book examines the progress that Black Americans have made in the United States in the post-World War Il era, from the framework of American citizenship. The data in this book show that Black Americans have made substantial social, economic and political progress during this period. For example, as of 2013, there were 60,000 Black American physicians; 50,000 lawyers and judges; 111,000 engineers; 329,000 mathematical or computer scientists; and 305,000 registered Nurses. However, depending on the variable examined, one would find a gender gap favoring either males or females. For example, by 2016, there were 2.446 million Black women and 1.841 million Black men aged 18 and over with at least a bachelor’s degree. While there are more Black females in the U. S. workforce, including in the top job category, professional and managerial positions (33.4% vs. 23%), Black males continue to earn higher incomes. This book presents various explanations for these gender gaps within the Black American population and the implications that result from them.